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Join With us. Today Updates. Statics and Dynamics By R. Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun April 8. April 7. Popular Files. January June February 6. Individuals who contributed to the work but whose contributions were not of sufficient magnitude to warrant authorship should be identified by name in an acknowledgments section.
All individuals who qualify for authorship or acknowledgment should be identified.
Conversely, every person identified as an author or acknowledged contributor should qualify for these roles. Individuals listed as authors should review and approve the manuscript before publication.
Editors should require authors and those acknowledged to identify their contributions to the work and make this information available to readers. The ultimate reason for identification of authors and other contributors is to establish accountability for the reported work. There is less agreement about the best way to ask about and report contributions, whether being an author implies accountability for only parts of the work they specifically did or for the entire paper, and whether editors should set firm criteria to distinguish authors from acknowledged contributors.
Within biomedicine, many journals have adopted the definition of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJE , which defines authorship by the following criteria: 1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published.
It is difficult to prescribe a defined set of contributions that meet the minimal conditions for authorship. Journal editors, researchers, and representatives of the academic community from different disciplines presented their experiences and views on authorship and journal authorship policies. The conclusions of the retreat are reflected in the common principles listed above as well as in the statements that follow. Authors are individuals identified by the research group to have made substantial contributions to the reported work and agree to be accountable for these contributions.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which of their co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, an author should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. All authors should review and approve the final manuscript. There is consensus about some types of contributions that do not alone justify identification as an author. Professional writers who participated only in drafting of the manuscript and did not have a role in the design or conduct of the study or the interpretation of results should be identified in the acknowledgements section along with information about potential conflicts of interest including whether they were compensated for the writing assistance and, if so, by which entity ies.
It is unacceptable to neglect to identify such individuals. The general aim of contributorship disclosure is to have authors describe, on the basis of a contributor taxonomy created by journal editors, exactly what each author did during the course of the study from its inception to publication, such as obtaining funding for the study; recruiting subjects; coordinating, collecting, and analyzing the data; and writing and revising the manuscript.
What authorship problems are editors specifically trying to identify and address? A range of inappropriate types of authorship have been described, including guest authorship, honorary or gift authorship, and ghost authorship.
Guest authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on an expectation that inclusion of a particular name will improve the chances that the study will be published or increase the perceived status of the publication.
Honorary or gift authorship. Honorary or gift authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on a tenuous affiliation with a study.
Ghost authorship. Examples of ghost authors include undisclosed contributors who are employees of pharmaceutical or device companies, medical writers, marketing and public relations writers, and junior staff writing for elected or appointed officials.
Because authorship should be transparent and requires public accountability, it is not appropriate to use pseudonyms or to publish scientific reports anonymously. In extremely rare cases, when the author can make a credible claim that attaching his or her name to the document could cause serious hardship e. Other categories of authorship that may be acceptable in certain circumstances include group authorship and the inclusion of deceased or incapacitated authors.
Group Authorship. Because it can be inaccurate and impossible to list all collaborators some would not meet basic ICMJE authorship criteria and byline space may preclude such a listing , authors need to think about how to communicate credit and responsibility for content. Authorship in which a select subgroup of the whole is listed in the byline on behalf of the whole. Deceased or Incapacitated Authors.
For cases in which a coauthor dies or is incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, coauthors should obtain disclosure and copyright documentation from a familial or legal proxy. An example of this would be technical laboratory or writing assistance; the specific contribution should be noted.
Authors should have each person listed in the acknowledgment sign a disclosure form or other statement acknowledging that they agree to have their names appear.
Those acknowledged should disclose potential conflicts of interest. Disagreements about author order should be resolved by the authors before the article is submitted for publication. Disputes that arise after submission could delay or prevent publication. Authors should not expect editors to become embroiled in disputes among authors over name placement in the byline.
Much has been written about the meaning of each place in the byline listing, particularly among the first 6 authors. Sample correspondence related to this topic is available on the CSE website. The new author list should be stated directly along with a justification for the change Sample correspondence related to this topic is available on the CSE website.
The author-editor relationship is founded on confidentiality. Authors should hold all communication between themselves and the journal in confidence.
Authors should designate a specific contact for all communication about the manuscript throughout peer review and if accepted the publication process. Authors should observe journal policy on communication with external peer reviewers the policy may vary depending on whether a journal uses masked or nonmasked peer review and should observe journal policy on prepublication embargoes see section 2.
The authors should provide a statement attesting to the originality of the study they have submitted for consideration. Originality is crucial, because many journals have limited space and editors may give a low priority to studies that, regardless of scientific accuracy and validity, do not advance the scientific enterprise. Some journals may ask authors to provide copies of reports on other studies articles, manuscripts, and abstracts related to the study under consideration.
Authors have a responsibility to be forthright when complying with journal submission requirements. Some journals also require statements on the regulatory status of any drugs or devices used in the study. Authors should expect editors to publish all relevant disclosures with their accepted manuscript. Authors should disclose all sources of funding government, corporate, other and any products or services such as materials and equipment, statistical analysis, and scientific writing provided by third parties in the course of the research, analysis, or reporting.
Some journals stipulate that authors disclose financial relationships in dollar amounts and set specific dollar thresholds.