Lee Kuan Yew. ○ Singapore PM(). ○ Founder of People's. Action Party (PAP). ○ Father of Singapore. ○ Passed away March PDF | The late Mr. Lee Kuan Yew was the founding father of the nation of Singapore. He was also a philosopher king in the mold of Plato's. A transformational leader is a need of every other society. Lee Kuan Yew was an exciting figure of transformational leadership. his outstanding skills and traits helped bring revolutions in Singapore.
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SINGAPORE - The passing of Singapore's founding father Lee Kuan Yew. History of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore's first Unesco site. Tips on. The Big Ideas of Lee Kuan Yew. Exposición del embajador Bilahari Kausikan en la conferencia. "The big ideas of Lee Kuan Yew", realizada en la Universidad. “Lee Kuan Yew's contributions to Singapore are well-known but his innermost thoughts and convictions have rarely been addressed by those who know.
Lee Kuan Yew's opportunity to formally enter politics came when members of the Singapore Chinese Middle Schools Union launched anti-colonial, non-violent protests against the enactment of the national service ordinance law on 13 May The student arrests gave rise to Lee's reputation as a "left-wing lawyer"  which provided a path for Lee into Singaporean politics through the Communist Party of Malaya.
This alliance was described by Lee as a marriage of convenience, since his English-speaking group needed the Chinese-speaking majority's mass support base. An inaugural conference was held at the Victoria Memorial Hall , attended by over 1, supporters and trade unionists. Lee became secretary-general , a post he held until , save for a brief period in Lee Kuan Yew won the Tanjong Pagar seat in the elections.
He became the opposition leader against David Saul Marshall 's Labour Front -led coalition government. He was also one of PAP's representatives to the two constitutional discussions held in London over the future status of Singapore, the first led by Marshall and the second by Lim Yew Hock , Marshall's hardline successor. It was during this period that Lee had to contend with rivals from both within and outside the PAP. Lee's position in the PAP was seriously under threat in when pro-communists took over the leadership posts, following a party conference which the party's left wing had stacked with fake members.
After the communist "scare", Lee subsequently received a new, stronger mandate from his Tanjong Pagar constituents in a by-election in In the national elections held on 30 May , the PAP won 43 of the 51 seats in the legislative assembly. Singapore gained self-government with autonomy in all state matters except defence and foreign affairs, and Lee became the first Prime Minister of Singapore on 3 June , taking over from Chief Minister Lim Yew Hock.
A key event was the motion of no confidence in the government, in which 13 PAP assemblymen crossed party lines and abstained from voting on 21 July Together with six prominent left-leaning leaders from trade unions, the breakaway members established a new party, the Barisan Sosialis.
His view was shared by the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan — , who was keen on a merger of British colonial territories across South East Asia, including Singapore, in order to hasten the end of British rule, whilst sharing similar concerns to those of Lee about avoiding possible Communist infiltration in Singapore.
After Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman proposed the formation of a federation which would include Malaya , Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak in , Lee began to campaign for a merger to end British colonial rule. On 16 September , Singapore became part of the new Federation of Malaysia. However, the union was short-lived. The race riots in Singapore followed, such as that on 21 July , near Kallang Gasworks, in which 23 people were killed and hundreds injured as Chinese and Malays attacked each other.
It is still disputed how the riots started, and theories include a bottle being thrown into a Muslim rally by a Chinese, while others have argued that it was started by a Malay. More riots broke out in September , as rioters looted cars and shops, forcing both Tunku Abdul Rahman and Lee to make public appearances to calm the situation. Unable to resolve the crisis, Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to expel Singapore from Malaysia, choosing to "sever all ties with a State Government that showed no measure of loyalty to its Central Government".
Lee refused and tried to work out a compromise, but without success. He was later convinced by Goh Keng Swee that the secession was inevitable. The failure of the merger was a blow to Lee, who believed that it was crucial for Singapore's survival. In a televised press conference that day, he fought back tears  and briefly stopped to regain his composure as he formally announced the separation and the full independence of Singapore to an anxious population:.
For me it is a moment of anguish because all my life I have believed in Malaysian merger and the unity of these two territories.
You know, it's a people connected by geography, economics, and ties of kinship On that same day, 9 August , just as the press conference ended, the Malaysian parliament passed the required resolution that would sever Singapore's ties to Malaysia as a state, and thus the Republic of Singapore was created. Singapore's lack of natural resources, a water supply that was derived primarily from Malaysia and a very limited defensive capability were the major challenges which Lee and the nascent Singaporean government faced.
Despite the momentous event, Lee did not call for the parliament to convene to reconcile issues that Singapore would face immediately as a new nation. Without giving further instructions on who should act in his absence, he went into isolation for six weeks, unreachable by phone, on a Singapore island. According to Dr. Toh Chin Chye , the parliament hung in suspended animation until the sitting in December that year. In his memoirs, Lee said that he was unable to sleep.
My colleagues and I are sane, rational people even in our moments of anguish. We will weigh all possible consequences before we make any move on the political chessboard Lee began to seek international recognition of Singapore's independence. Lee made his first official visit to Indonesia on 25 May , just a few years after the Indonesia—Malaysia confrontation under Sukarno 's regime. Relations between Singapore and Indonesia substantially improved as subsequent visits were made between the two countries.
Singapore has never had a dominant culture to which immigrants could assimilate even though Malay was the dominant language at that time. Lee and his government stressed the importance of maintaining religious tolerance and racial harmony, and they were ready to use the law to counter any threat that might incite ethnic and religious violence.
For example, Lee warned against "insensitive evangelisation", by which he referred to instances of Christian proselytising directed at Malays. In the government advised the Bible Society of Singapore to stop publishing religious material in Malay. The vulnerability of Singapore was deeply felt, with threats from multiple sources including the communists and Indonesia with its confrontational stance.
As Singapore gained admission to the United Nations, Lee quickly sought international recognition of Singapore's independence.
By , Singapore had 17 national service battalions 16, men with 14 battalions 11, men in the reserves. One of Lee's most urgent tasks upon Singapore's independence was to address high unemployment. Tourism helped but did not completely resolve the unemployment problem.
Together with his economic aide, Economic Development Board chairman Hon Sui Sen , and in consultation with Dutch economist Albert Winsemius , Lee set up factories and initially focused on the manufacturing industry.
Before the British completely withdrew from Singapore in , Lee also persuaded the British not to destroy their dock and had the British naval dockyard later converted for civilian use. After years of trial and error, Lee and his cabinet decided the best way to boost Singapore's economy was to attract foreign investments from multinational corporations MNCs. By establishing First World infrastructure and standards in Singapore, the new nation could woo American, Japanese and European entrepreneurs and professionals to set up base there.
By the s, the arrival of MNCs like Texas Instruments , Hewlett-Packard and General Electric laid the foundations, turning Singapore into a major electronics exporter the following decade. The government also started several new industries, such as steel mills under 'National Iron and Steel Mills', service industries like Neptune Orient Lines , and the Singapore Airlines. Lee and his cabinet also worked to establish Singapore as an international financial centre.
Foreign bankers were assured of the reliability of Singapore's social conditions, with top-class infrastructure and skilled professionals, and investors were made to understand that the Singapore government would pursue sound macroeconomic policies, with budget surpluses , leading to a stable valued Singapore dollar.
Throughout the tenure of his office, Lee always placed great importance on developing the economy, and his attention to detail on this aspect went even to the extent of connecting it with other facets of Singapore, including the country's extensive and meticulous tending of its international image of being a "Garden City",  something that has been sustained to this day. Singapore had problems with political corruption.
Lee introduced legislation giving the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau CPIB greater power to conduct arrests, search, call up witnesses, and investigate bank accounts and income-tax returns of suspected persons and their families. In the late s, fearing that Singapore's growing population might overburden the developing economy, Lee started a " Stop at Two " family planning campaign. Couples were urged to undergo sterilisation after their second child.
Third or fourth children were given lower priorities in education and such families received fewer economic rebates. In , Lee sparked the "Great Marriage Debate" when he encouraged Singapore men to choose highly educated women as wives. By the late s, the birth rate had fallen so low that Lee's successor Goh Chok Tong extended these incentives to all married women, and gave even more incentives, such as the "baby bonus" scheme.
One of Lee's abiding beliefs was in the efficacy of corporal punishment in the form of caning. He wrote: I did not think he lightened his strokes. I have never understood why Western educationists are so much against corporal punishment.
It did my fellow students and me no harm. Lee's government inherited judicial corporal punishment from British rule, but greatly expanded its scope. Under the British, it had been used as a penalty for offences involving personal violence, amounting to a handful of caning sentences per year. The PAP government under Lee extended its use to an ever-expanding range of crimes. From canings in , the figure rose to 3, in  and to 6, in In judicial caning was intensely publicised in the rest of the world when an American teenager, Michael Fay , was caned under the vandalism legislation.
School corporal punishment for male students only was likewise inherited from the British, and this is in widespread use to discipline disobedient schoolboys, still under legislation from Singapore has traditionally relied on water from Malaysia.
However, this reliance has made Singapore subject to the possibility of price increases and allowed Malaysian officials to use the water reliance as a political leverage by threatening to cut off supply. To reduce this problem, Lee decided to experiment with water recycling in The aim was to determine if NEWater was a viable source of raw water for Singapore's needs.
In , PUB initiated efforts to increase water supplies for non-potable use. Using NEWater for these would help reduce the demand on the reservoirs for potable water. The Singapore International Water Week was started in ; it focused on sustainable water solutions for cities.
The Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize was introduced in recognition given to outstanding contributions towards solving global water crisis. The prize has become an international award given out to individuals and groups worldwide. Lee looked forward to improving relationships with Mahathir Mohamad upon the latter's promotion to Deputy Prime Minister.
The first and subsequent visits improved both personal and diplomatic relationships between them. Following his death, Mahathir posted a blog post that suggested his respect for Lee despite their differences, stating that while "I am afraid on most other issues we could not agree His passage marks the end of the period when those who fought for independence lead their countries and knew the value of independence.
Goh was elected as the new Prime Minister by the younger ministers then in office. When Goh Chok Tong became head of government, Lee remained in the cabinet with a non-executive position of Senior Minister and played a role he described as advisory. From the decade of the s, Lee expressed concern about the declining proficiency of Mandarin among younger Chinese Singaporeans.
In one of his parliamentary speeches, he said: Huayu Cool! In June , Lee published a book, Keeping My Mandarin Alive , documenting his decades of effort to master Mandarin, a language that he said he had to re-learn due to disuse:.
Then I have to revive it. It's a terrible problem because learning it in adult life, it hasn't got the same roots in your memory. To do that, you will need people at the top, decision-makers who have got foresight, good minds, who are open to ideas, who can seize opportunities like we did My job really was to find my successors.
I found them, they are there; their job is to find their successors. So there must be this continuous renewal of talented, dedicated, honest, able people who will do things not for themselves but for their people and for their country. If they can do that, they will carry on for another one generation and so it goes on.
The moment that breaks, it's gone. On 13 September Lee underwent successful treatment for abnormal heart rhythm atrial flutter at Singapore General Hospital , but he was still able to address a philanthropy forum via video link from hospital.
In a US Embassy report classified as "Secret", Lee gave his assessment of a number of Asian leaders and views on political developments in North Asia, including implications for nuclear proliferation. The first print run of 45, copies sold out in less than a month after it was launched in January Another batch of 55, copies was made available shortly after.
After the general elections in which the Workers' Party , a major opposition political party in Singapore, made unprecedented gains by winning a Group Representation Constituency GRC , Lee announced that he decided to leave the Cabinet for the Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong , and his team to have a clean slate. In a column in the Sunday Times on 6 November , Lee's daughter Lee Wei Ling revealed that her father suffered from peripheral neuropathy. Wei Ling, a neurologist, "did a few simple neurological tests and decided the nerves to his legs were not working as they should".
A day later, when interviewed at a constituency tree-planting event, Lee stated "I have no doubt at all that this has not affected my mind, my will nor my resolve" and that "people in wheel chairs can make a contribution. I've still got two legs, I will make a contribution.
On 15 February , Lee was admitted to Singapore General Hospital after suffering a prolonged cardiac dysrhythmia which was followed by a brief stoppage of blood flow to the brain. The following year, Lee missed his constituency's Chinese New Year dinner for the second consecutive time owing to bodily bacterial invasion. On 5 February , Lee was hospitalised and was put on a ventilator at the intensive care unit of Singapore General Hospital, although his condition was reported initially as "stable".
On 18 March , a death hoax website reported false news of Lee's death. The suspect is an unidentified minor who created a false webpage that resembled the PMO official website. Lee was a member of the Fondation Chirac 's honour committee,  from the time that the foundation was launched in by the former French President Jacques Chirac to promote world peace. Bechtel , George Shultz and others. The question was posed by an unnamed homosexual man in Singapore who asked about the future of LGBT people there.
Lee replied that it was not for the government to decide whether or not homosexuality was acceptable; it was for Singaporean society to decide.
He also said he did not think an "aggressive gay rights movement" would change people's minds on the issue. He added that the government would not interfere or harass anybody, whether heterosexual or otherwise.
Lee next answered a question about homosexuality at a Young PAP meeting in She asked if the current censorship rules in Singapore were too equivocal and where censorship was headed in the next two decades. Chen referred to a controversial play about Singaporean porn actress Annabel Chong , which explored pornography and alternative sexuality. Lee was then asked if he believed homosexuality was a product of nature or nurture.
He replied that he had asked doctors about homosexuality and had been told that it was caused by a genetic random transmission of genes. He was asked how he would react if one of his grandchildren turned out to be homosexual. He replied that he would accept his grandchild because homosexuality is a genetic code. He did not think LGBT people were suited to bringing up a child as they have no maternal instinct aroused by the process of pregnancy.
Lee identified himself as a "nominal Buddhist " on several occasions, most recently in During an event at NUS in , Lee told the audience that he accepted beads from a Buddhist because he is a nominal Buddhist.
I go through the motions and the rituals. I am not a Christian. I am not a Taoist. I do not belong to any special sect. All that is laid out by the servants. But it will go off after my generation. It is like clearing the graves during Qing Ming.
With each passing generation, fewer people go. It is a ritual. Lee was sometimes identified by others as an agnostic,  notably during an interview with Goh Keng Swee in when the latter identified S. Rajaratnam and Lee as agnostics.
I neither deny nor accept that there is a God. Lee in , reflecting on his legacy . The unemployment rate in Singapore dropped from In other areas, the life expectancy at birth for Singaporeans rose from 65 years at to 74 years in The population of Singapore increased from 1.
The number of public flats in Singapore rose from 22, in then under the Singapore Improvement Trust to , in Telephone lines per Singaporeans increased from 3 in to 38 in Visitor arrivals to Singapore rose from , in to 5. During the three decades in which Lee held office, Singapore grew from a developing country to one of the most developed nations in Asia. Lee's achievements in Singapore had a profound effect on the Communist leadership in China, who made a major effort, especially under Deng Xiaoping , to emulate his policies of economic growth, entrepreneurship and subtle suppression of dissent.
Over 22, Chinese officials were sent to Singapore to study its methods. Other world leaders also praised Lee. Henry Kissinger once said that Lee was "One of the asymmetries of history". Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher praised "his way of penetrating the fog of propaganda and expressing with unique clarity the issues of our time and the way to tackle them". On the other hand, many Singaporeans have criticised Lee as authoritarian and as intolerant of dissent, citing his numerous—mostly successful—attempts to sue political opponents and newspapers who express an unfavourable opinion.
Reporters Without Borders , an international media pressure group, requested Lee and other senior Singaporean officials to stop taking libel suits against journalists. In addition to being authoritarian [ citation needed ] , Lee was accused of promoting a culture of elitism among Singapore's ruling class. Networks of Influence and Power claims that the system of meritocracy in Singapore is not quite how the government presents it; rather, it is a system of nepotism and collusion run by Lee's family and their crony friends and allies.
Barr claims further that although the government presents the city-state as multi-ethnic and cosmopolitan, all the networks are dominated by ethnic Chinese, leaving the minority Malay and Indian ethnic groups powerless. According to Barr, the entire process of selecting and grooming of future political and economic talent is monopolised in the hands of the ruling People's Action Party, which Lee himself founded with a handful of other British-educated ethnic Chinese that he met in his days at Cambridge.
In , the former Singaporean President Devan Nair , who was living in Canada, remarked in an interview with the Toronto The Globe and Mail that Lee's technique of suing his opponents into bankruptcy or oblivion was an abrogation of political rights. He also remarked that Lee is "an increasingly self-righteous know-all", surrounded by "department store dummies". In response to these remarks, Lee sued Nair in a Canadian court and Nair countersued. Lee then brought a motion to have Nair's counterclaim thrown out of court.
Lee argued that Nair's counterclaim disclosed no reasonable cause of action and constituted an inflammatory attack on the integrity of the Singapore government. However, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice refused to throw out Nair's counterclaim, holding that Lee had abused the litigating process and therefore Nair had a reasonable cause of action.
According to Lee's memoirs, Nair was forced to resign as President due to his alleged alcoholism, a charge which Nair denied. In the Graduate Mothers' Scheme was launched, which gave priority for public services to mothers with higher-educational qualification prompting allegations of eugenics. A proponent of nature over nurture he stated that "intelligence is 80 percent nature and 20 percent nurture" and attributed the successes of his children to genetics.
The court found the article "Singapore's 'Martyr': Chee Soon Juan " suggested that Lee had been running and continues to run Singapore in the same corrupt manner as T. Durai operated the National Kidney Foundation NKF and he has been using libel actions to suppress those who would question him to avoid exposure of his corruption. The International Herald Tribune apologised in March that readers of the article may "infer that the younger Lee did not achieve his position through merit".
The case stemmed from a settlement between the three Singaporean leaders and the paper about an article, also by Bowring, that referred to "dynastic politics" in East Asian countries, including Singapore. In that settlement, Bowring agreed not to say or imply that the younger Lee had attained his position through nepotism by his father Lee Kuan Yew.
In response, media-rights watchdog Reporters Without Borders wrote an open letter to urge Lee and other top officials of the Singapore government to stop taking "libel actions" against journalists. In , in a discussion forum, Lee Kuan Yew was asked whether the emotional bonds of various ethnic groups in Singapore could be a hurdle to nation building, Lee replied: We must not make an error.
If, for instance, you put in a Malay officer who's very religious and who has family ties in Malaysia in charge of a machine-gun unit, that's a very tricky business.
We've got to know his background. I'm saying these things because they are real, and if I don't think that, and I think even if today the Prime Minister doesn't think carefully about this, we could have a tragedy.
In , WikiLeaks published diplomatic cables attributing controversial comments on Islam to Lee. WikiLeaks quoted Lee as having described Islam as a "venomous religion". Lee called the remarks "false" and looked up to MFA's filenote of meeting and found no record of claim, he said "I did talk about extremist terrorists like the Jemaah Islamiyah group, and the jihadist preachers who brainwashed them.
They are implacable in wanting to put down all who do not agree with them. So their Islam is a perverted version, which the overwhelming majority of Muslims in Singapore do not subscribe to". He added that "Singapore Muslim leaders were rational and that the ultimate solution to extremist terrorism was to give moderate Muslims the courage to stand up and speak out against radicals who hijacked Islam to recruit volunteers for their violent ends.
During Lee's book release Lee Kuan Yew: Hard Truths to Keep Singapore Going. In the book, Lee stated that Singaporean Muslims faced difficulties in integrating because of their religion, and urged them to "be less strict on Islamic observances". Muslims are a valued and respected community, who have done a good deal to strengthen our harmony and social cohesion. I hope that this trend will continue in the future. It is said that Lee's policy in the s and s stop at two worked too well, and the birth rate declined at a rapid rate and resulted in an ageing population.
In , Chua depicted Lee against a backdrop of Singapore's transformation. The specially commissioned oil painting was presented to Lee himself. In , artist Lai Kui Fang presented historical oil paintings of Lee's swearing-in ceremony as prime minister, which are part of the National Museum of Singapore 's collection. The book was updated and republished in Lee , a portrait of Lee made from 8, plastic shampoo bottle caps placed on an angled pedestal.
The resulting exhibition, Beyond LKY , included artist Jimmy Ong's triptych of Lee as a father figure looming over a tiny kneeling figure with the words, "Papa can you hear me", scrawled across the watercolours; an installation of a broken piano with a tape recorder playing a crackling version of Singapore's National Anthem by multi-disciplinary artist Zai Kuning; white ceramic chains hanging on a wall by ceramic artist Jason Lim; and an installation of hammers smashed together by artist Tang Da Wu.
The exhibition's title references Lee's former position as Minister Mentor and also the idea of "modern mythology". In , the iris image of Lee's eye was captured and artistically rendered to resemble a sand art gallery piece. His eye image with his autograph was auctioned off to raise funds for the Singapore Eye Research Institute. In , poet Cyril Wong published The Dictator's Eyebrow , a thinly veiled and surreal collection revolving around a Lee-like figure and his eyebrow's thirst for recognition and power.
Singapore , to raise funds for Reach Community Services Society. In February , artist Boo Sze Yang presented The Father at iPreciation Gallery, a solo exhibition featuring eight oil-on-canvas portraits of Lee in unconventional settings, like an embellished throne or a scene that depicts the Last Supper.
The series was later translated into Mandarin. In July , it was reported that photographers Samuel He and Sam Chin were on the search for people with the same name as Lee for an upcoming book project.
As of March , three people had been found, including Lee Kuang Yeo, a former fish farmer, who shares the same Chinese name as Lee. It was an attempt to do something heartfelt and different with a local flavour. Political Cartoons , an anthology of cartoons about Lee published by Epigram Books , featuring a Singapore Herald cartoon of Lee on a tank threatening to crush a baby representing press freedoms that reportedly caused the newspaper's shutdown. The painting, which took Tan five years to complete, was partially damaged by a fire in It depicts Lee and Kwa in their youth, is based on a black-and-white photograph of the couple in Cambridge University, and incorporates in its background Tan's poem in memory of Kwa.
A Couple was downloadd by art collector Wu Hsioh Kwang. What is important for pupils is not literature, but a philosophy of life. In , American painter Lee Waisler unveiled his portrait of Lee. At Art Stage Singapore , Singapore's Art Plural Gallery presented a solo exhibition by Chinese artist Nan Qi , comprising a selection of intricate ink paintings of politicians, including a series of portraits of Lee.
The online exhibition consisted of performances by Singaporeans doing moves from Mambo Jambo theme nights at Zouk to texts drawn from Lee's book From Third World to First: The Singapore Story. Ong created the A2-sized portrait in tribute to Lee, who was critically ill. The portrait, along with videos detailing the drawing process, went viral on social media.
Yee also posted on his blog a stick-figure cartoon depicting Lee having sex with Margaret Thatcher , a personal and political ally of Lee's. Presented by art collector Vincent Chua, The Singapore Story featured 80 portraits of Lee and a life-size statue of Lee shaking hands with Deng Xiaoping when the Chinese statesman visited Singapore in In May , Singapura: The Musical opened at the Capitol Theatre.
Previously reported as a musical "about" Lee, Singapura instead only featured an obliquely named character, "Man in White", drifting across the stage. In July , veteran actor Lim Kay Tong portrayed Lee in the historical film , including a re-enactment of the iconic press conference when Lee announced that Singapore would be separated from Malaysia. Both the sculpture and exhibition are entitled Weathering Storms As One.
Between and , Lee Kuan Yew published a two-volume set of memoirs. The Singapore Story gives his account of Singapore's subsequent transformation into a developed nation. Lee Kuan Yew Language Learning Experience , which documents his challenge learning Mandarin in his thirties and why it is important for overseas Chinese to learn and speak Chinese.
In , Lee published My Lifelong Challenge Singapore's Bilingual Journey which chronicles his struggle adopting Singapore bilingual policy in a multiracial society. Also in , Lee published Hard Truths to Keep Singapore Going , a page questions-and-answers book, in which he is interviewed by journalists from Singapore Press Holdings on issues which include the challenges he faced when Singapore first gained independence, the future political landscape, opportunities for youth in Singapore and also his personal views on homosexuality and family.
The Man And His Ideas, published in See our Remembering Lee Kuan Yew interactive special.
A collaboration between The Straits Times and the Singapore Police Force, this e-book recounts some of the most famous crimes in the country.
A recap of the paper's evolution from an eight-page weekly in , to a daily to , to the paper of national record in the 20th century. In conjunction with The Straits Times Run at the Hub race in , the paper launched this e-book that contains 10 types of tips for a runner to run a good race. You can also find more food recipes published in The Straits Times here. A selection of articles from a print special produced with Asia News Network partners on the 10th anniversary of the Indian Ocean tsunami.
However, a liftboy in his office told him his file had been taken out by the security department, and he realised he was being followed by Japanese security personnel which continued for three months , so he abandoned those plans as he knew if he went ahead, he would be in trouble.
Lee set up private small enterprises during the war to survive; among which was one that manufactured stationery glue, branded as "Stikfas". The Japanese army was rounding up Chinese men for questioning and Lee was told to fall in and join the segregated Chinese men. Sensing that something was amiss, he asked for permission to return home to collect his clothes first, and the Japanese guard agreed.
It turned out that those who were segregated were taken to the beach to be shot as part of the Sook Ching massacre. He and other young Singaporeans "emerged determined that no one—neither Japanese nor British—had the right to push and kick us around He drove Widdicombe around in a lorry and delivered several speeches on his behalf. Widdicombe lost the election in , but went on to become a member of the Inner Temple with Lee. He returned to Singapore in Early political career — [ edit ] In his memoirs, Lee recounted that he had intended to return to Singapore to work as a lawyer.
He also worked as a legal advisor to the trade and students' unions. One story is that it was Lee who invited the lead counsel D.
Pritt to defend the students, although this was denied by Club members. Lee gained a widespread reputation through the victory of the trial, the first sedition trial in Colonial post-war Malaya. The Straits Times on 26 August proclaimed this a "tremendous victory for freedom of speech".
At the same time, Lee was accepted by most Singaporeans as the "hero of high". Furthermore, the co-operation between Lee and the Club members strengthened their relationship which was significant for Lee's future political career and the founding of the PAP. The student arrests gave rise to Lee's reputation as a "left-wing lawyer"  which provided a path for Lee into Singaporean politics through the Communist Party of Malaya.
This alliance was described by Lee as a marriage of convenience since his English-speaking group needed the Chinese-speaking majority's mass support base. An inaugural conference was held at the Victoria Memorial Hall , attended by over 1, supporters and trade unionists. Lee became secretary-general , a post he held until , save for a brief period in He became the opposition leader against David Saul Marshall 's Labour Front -led coalition government.
He was also one of PAP's representatives to the two constitutional discussions held in London over the future status of Singapore, the first led by Marshall and the second by Lim Yew Hock , Marshall's hardline successor. It was during this period that Lee had to contend with rivals from both within and outside the PAP. After the communist "scare", Lee subsequently received a new, stronger mandate from his Tanjong Pagar constituents in a by-election in Singapore gained self-government with autonomy in all state matters except defence and foreign affairs, and Lee became the first Prime Minister of Singapore on 3 June , taking over from Chief Minister Lim Yew Hock.
Together with six prominent left-leaning leaders from trade unions, the breakaway members established a new party, the Barisan Sosialis.